In general, the more risk you take on, the greater your possible return. There is generally a close relationship between the level of investment risk and the potential level of growth, or investment returns, over the long term. 2. Others provide higher potential returns but are riskier. Remember that the SFM paper is not a mathematics paper, so we do not have to work through the derivation of any formulae from first principles. To calculate the risk premium, we need to be able to define and measure risk. 9 Investors who have well-diversified portfolios dominate the market. The returns of A and B move in perfect lock step, (when the return on A goes up to 30%, the return on B also goes up to 30%, when the return on A goes down to 10%, the return on B also goes down to 10%), ie they move in the same direction and by the same degree. Below are some popular types of financial products and an indication of the level of risk associated with each type: Guaranteed investment certificate with a fixed rate of interest at maturity. What is the missing factor? Required return = Think of lottery tickets, for example. Calculation of the risk premium R = Rf + (Rm – Rf)bWhere, R = required rate of return of security Rf = risk free rate Rm = expected market return B = beta of the security Rm – Rf = equity market premium 56. The Barclay Capital Study calculated the average return on treasury bills in the UK from 1900 to 2002 as approximately 6%. If we have a large enough portfolio it is possible to eliminate the unsystematic risk. So far we have confined our choice to a single investment. Covariability can be measured in absolute terms by the covariance or in relative terms by the correlation coefficient. One of our agents will be pleased to return your call. The reason for squaring the deviations is to ensure that both positive and negative deviations contribute equally to the measure of variability. For completeness, the calculations of the covariances from raw data are included. This is the only situation where the portfolio’s standard deviation can be calculated as follows: σ port (A,C) = 4.47 × 0.5 - 4.47 × 0.5 = 0 In reality, the correlation coefficient between returns on investments tends to lie between 0 and +1. This is not surprising and it is what we would expect from risk- averse investors. Ƀ Describe different types of financial risk. RISK AND RETURN This chapter explores the relationship between risk and return inherent in investing in securities, especially stocks. Given that Joe requires a return of 16% should he invest? The value of investments can fall as well as rise and you could get back less than you invest. The formula will obviously take into account the risk (standard deviation of returns) of both investments but will also need to incorporate a measure of covariability as this influences the level of risk reduction. However, these only relate to specific instances where the investments being compared either have the same expected return or the same standard deviation. We have just calculated a historical return, on the basis that the dividend income and the price at the end of year one is known. In a large portfolio, the individual risk of investments can be diversified away. We just need to understand the conclusion of the analysis. Try finding an asset, where there is no risk. Risk, along with the return, is a major consideration in capital budgeting decisions. If we assume that investors are rational and risk averse, their portfolios should be well-diversified, ie only suffer the type of risk that they cannot diversify away (systematic risk). Perfect negative correlation does not occur between the returns on two investments in the real world, ie risk cannot be eliminated, although it is useful to know the theoretical extremes. There is a clear (if not linear) relationship between risk and returns. See Example 7. Given that the expected return is the same for both companies, investors will opt for the one that has the lowest risk, ie A plc. However, a well-diversified portfolio only suffers from systematic risk, as the unsystematic risk has been diversified away. Investors receive their returns from shares in the form of dividends and capital gains/ losses. THE NPV CALCULATION The NPV is positive, thus Joe should invest. The chart below shows that the higher the potential return, the higher the risk! Please visit our global website instead, Relevant to ACCA Qualification Papers F9 and P4. Portfolio A+B – perfect positive correlation Analysts normally consider the different possible returns in alternate market conditions and try and assign a probability to each. The relationship between risk and return is a fundamental concept in finance theory, and is one of the most important concepts for investors to understand. 0.8 20 As the standard deviation is the square root of the variance, its units are in rates of return. A positive NPV opportunity is where the expected return more than compensates the investor for the perceived level of risk, ie the expected return of 20% is greater than the required return of 16%. Therefore, we will need a new formula to calculate the risk (standard deviation of returns) on a two -asset portfolio. The table in Example 1 shows the calculation of the expected return for A plc. To compare A plc and Z plc, the expected return and the standard deviation of the returns for Z plc will have to be calculated. In this article we discuss the concepts of risk and returns as well as the relationship between them. Return refers to either gains and losses made from trading a security. THE STUDY OF RISK It is known that the expected return of the asset is 9%, the volatility is bounded between 18% and 32%, and the covariance between the asset and the market is bounded between 0.014 and 0.026. The formula for calculating the annual return on a share is: Suppose that a dividend of 5p per share was paid during the year on a share whose value was 100p at the start of the year and 117p at the end of the year: The total return is made up of a 5% dividend yield and a 17% capital gain. 8 An investor who holds a well-diversified portfolio will only require a return for systematic risk. Risk Fallacy Number 1: Taking more risk will lead to a higher return. 10 KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER. The portfolio’s standard deviation under this theoretical extreme of perfect positive correlation is a simple weighted average of the standard deviations of the individual investments: σport (A,B) = 4.47 × 0.5 + 4.47 × 0.5 = 4.47 The variance of return is the weighted sum of squared deviations from the expected return. The global body for professional accountants, Can't find your location/region listed? First we turn our attention to the concept of expected return. Risk and Return Considerations. Risk and return are always linked when investing: the higher the risk, the greater the (potential) return. Thus investors have a preference to invest in different industries thus aiming to create a well- diversified portfolio, ensuring that the maximum risk reduction effect is obtained. REQUIRED RETURN Some investments carry a low risk but also generate a lower return. How much do you expect to earn off of your investment over the next year? A negative covariance indicates that the returns move in opposite directions as in A and C. A zero covariance indicates that the returns are independent of each other as in A and D. Thus if an investor had invested in shares that had the same level of risk as the market, he would have to receive an extra 5% of return to compensate for the mark et risk. The forecast actual return is the same as the expected return under normal market conditions and almost the same under boom market conditions (20 v 21.25). Thus the key motivation in establishing a portfolio is the reduction of risk. The third term is the most interesting one as it considers the way in which the returns on each pair of investments co-vary. A balance between risk and return in investing: Whether you are a conservative, moderate or aggressive investor you will have to manage risk and try to achieve as high returns as possible without compromising your risk management principles. The risk contributed by the covariance is often called the ‘market or systematic risk’. This is, of course, heavily tied into risk. However, portfolio theory shows us that it is possible to reduce risk without having a consequential reduction in return. In other words, it is the degree of deviation from expected return. Therefore, we can say that the forecast actual and expected returns are almost the same in two out of the three conditions. 7 A portfolio’s total risk consists of unsystematic and systematic risk. You also need to know the description of the investment, its potential return and its liquidity (possibility of withdrawing the investment quickly without a penalty). Total risk is normally measured by the standard deviation of returns ( σ ). The greater the amount of risk an investor is willing to take, the greater the potential return. Risk simply means that the future actual return may vary from the expected return. After investing money in a project a firm wants to get some outcomes from the project. Portfolio theory demonstrates that it is possible to reduce risk without having a consequential reduction in return, ie the portfolio’s expected return is equal to the weighted average of the expected returns on the individual investments, while the portfolio risk is normally less than the weighted average of the risk of the individual investments. 16% = 6% + (5% × 2) Section 7 presents a review of empirical tests of the model. We can see from Portfolio A + D above where the correlation coefficient was zero, that by investing in just two investments we can reduce the risk from 4.47% to just 3.16% (a reduction of 1.31 percentage points). See Example 3. The expected return of a two-asset portfolio The meaning of return is simple. It is the norm in a two-asset portfolio to achieve a partial reduction of risk (the standard deviation of a two-asset portfolio is less than the weighted average of the standard deviation of the individual investments). The idea is that some investments will do well at times when others are not. Intuitively, we probably feel that it does not matter which portfolio Joe chooses, as the standard deviation of the portfolios should be the same (because the standard deviations of the individual investments are all the same). We can see that the standard deviation of all the individual investments is 4.47%. They only require a return for systematic risk. When investing, people usually look for the greatest risk adjusted return. See Example 2. The risk-free return is the return required by investors to compensate them for investing in a risk-free investment. See Example 5. The chart below shows that the higher the potential return, the higher the risk! Should he save, invest, or speculate? The return on an investment is the result that you achieve in proportion to its value. The definition of risk that is often used in finance literature is based on the variability of the actual return from the expected return. What extra return would I require to compensate for undertaking a risky investment?’ Let us try and find the answers to Joe’s questions. This is neatly captured in the old saying ‘don’t put all your eggs in one basket’. Decision criteria: accept if the NPV is zero or positive. Before we perform these calculations let us review the basic logic behind the idea that risk may be reduced depending on how the returns on two investments co -vary. The risk of investing in mutual funds is determined by the underlying risks of the stocks, bonds, and other investments held by the fund. The risk-free return compensates investors for inflation and consumption preference, ie the fact that they are deprived from using their funds while tied up in the investment. One of the most widely accepted theories about risk and return holds that there is a linear relationship between risk and return But there are many fallacies and misconceptions about risk. Imagine how much risk we could have diversified away, had we created a large portfolio of say 500 different investments or indeed 5,000 different investments. Hence there is no reduction of risk. average return = the average of of annual return for years 1 through T Explain the tradeoff between risk and return for large portfolios versus individual stocks for large portfolios the higher the volatility the higher the reward but volatility does not have a direct relationship with reward when it … Others provide higher potential returns but are riskier. Assume that the expected return will be 20% at the end of the first year. We find that two thirds of an investment’s total risk can be diversified away, while the remaining one third of risk cannot be diversified away. Introduction to Risk and Return. Risk – Return Relationship. Individuals and firms in the financial sector, Fintech, Exams, probationary period, right to practise, trainers, Transparency Measures - Mining, oil and gas, Share the page by e-mail, This link will open in a new window, Share the page on Facebook, This link will open in a new window, Share the page on Twitter, This link will open in a new window, Share the page on LinkedIn, This link will open in a new window. Risk-free return + Risk premium Where investments have increasing levels of return accompanied by increasing levels of standard deviation, then the choice between investments will be a subjective decision based on the investor’s attitude to risk. The standard deviation of a two-asset portfolio Then the formula for the variance of the portfolio becomes: The first term is the average variance of the individual investments and the second term is the average covariance. Suppose that we invest equal amounts in a very large portfolio. Risk refers to the variability of possible returns associated with a given investment. The Relationship between Risk and Return. Investing: What’s the relationship between risk and return. Portfolio A+C – perfect negative correlation As discussed previously, the type of risks you are exposed to will be determined by the type of assets in which you choose to invest. Statistical measures of variability are the variance and the standard deviation (the square root of the variance). Required return = Risk free return + Systematic risk premium The extent of the risk reduction is influenced by the way the returns on the investments co-vary. We need to understand the principles that underpin portfolio theory, before we can appreciate the creation of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). This risk cannot be diversified away. Joe currently has his savings safely deposited in his local bank. However, the risk contributed by the covariance will remain. Risk is the chance that your actual return will differ from your expected return, and by how much. Thus total risk can only be partially reduced, not eliminated. The risk-return relationship is explained in two separate back-to-back articles in this month’s issue. He is trying to determine if the shares are going to be a viable investment. Unsystematic/Specific risk: refers to the impact on a company’s cash flows of largely random events like industrial relations problems, equipment failure, R&D achievements, changes in the senior management team etc. Explain the relationship between risk and return. Systematic/Market risk: general economic factors are those macro -economic factors that affect the cash flows of all companies in the stock market in a consistent manner, eg a country’s rate of economic growth, corporate tax rates, unemployment levels, and interest rates. 10 The preparation of a summary table and the identification of the most efficient portfolio (if possible) is an essential exam skill. Based on our initial understanding of the risk-return relationship, if investors wish to reduce their risk they will have to accept a reduced return. Given that the expected return is the same for all the portfolios, Joe will opt for the portfolio that has the lowest risk as measured by the portfolio’s standard deviation. The required return consists of two elements, which are: One of the most difficult problems for an investor is to estimate the highest level of risk he is able to assume. The risk return relationship is a business concept referring to the risk involved in exchange for the amount of return gained on an investment. A characteristic line is a regression line thatshows the relationship between an … The relationship between risk and return can be observed by examining the returns actually earned by investors in various types of securities over long periods of time. Port A + C 20 0.00 In this article, you will discover how risky investing is. Higher returns might sound appealing but you need to accept there may be a greater risk of losing your money. No mutual fund can guarantee its returns, and no mutual fund is risk-free. Risk refers to the possibility of the actual return varying from the expected return, ie the actual return may be 30% or 10% as opposed to the expected return of 20%. The missing factor is how the returns of the two investments co-relate or co-vary, ie move up or down together. We are about to review the mathematical proof of this statement. The logic is that an investor who puts all of their funds into one investment risks everything on the performance of that individual investment. As mentioned earlier too, the asset, which gives higher returns, is generally expected to have higher levels of risk. Written by Clayton Reeves for Gaebler Ventures. The Barclay Capital Equity Gilt Study 2003 Thus we can now appreciate the statement ‘that the market only gives a return for systematic risk’. Let us then assume that there is a choice of investing in either A plc or Z plc, which one should we choose? Figure 6: relationship between risk & return. Section 6 presents an intuitive justification of the capital asset pricing model. Therefore, when there is no correlation between the returns on investments this results in the partial reduction of risk. Summary table Increased potential returns on investment usually go hand-in-hand with increased risk. 2. Chances are that you will end up with an asset giving very low returns. The best way to manage your risk and protect yourself is to practice proper diversification. Thus their required return consists of the risk-free rate plus a systematic risk premium. The decision is equally clear where an investment gives the highest expected return for a given level of risk. The returns on most investments will tend to move in the same direction to a greater or lesser degree because of common macro- economic factors affecting all investments. Probability Return % The required return may be calculated as follows: The current share price of A plc is 100p and the estimated returns for next year are shown. The total risk of a portfolio (as measured by the standard deviation of returns) consists of two types of risk: unsystematic risk and systematic risk. + read full definition and the risk-return relationship. Calculating the risk premium is the essential component of the discount rate. Always remember: the greater the potential return, the greater the risk. return of A plc return premium Finance professionals believe that investor expectations of the relative returns anticipated from various types of securities are heavily influenced by the returns that have been earned on these securities over long periods in the past. As portfolios increase in size, the opportunity for risk reduction also increases. The return on treasury bills is often used as a surrogate for the risk-free rate. Assume that our investor, Joe has decided to construct a two-asset portfolio and that he has already decided to invest 50% of the funds in A plc. (article continues below) In what follows we’ll define risk and return precisely, investi-gate the nature of their relationship, and find that there are ways to limit exposure to in-vestment risk. 5. The returns of A and C move in equal but opposite ways (when the return on A goes up to 30%, the return on C goes down to 10%, when the return on A goes down to 10%, the return on C goes up to 30%). as well as within each asset class (by investing in multiple types of … Based on the first version of the formula: The second version of the formula is the one that is nearly always used in exams and it is the one that is given on the formula sheet. 0.1 5 A widely used definition of investment risk, both in theory and practice, is the uncertainty that an investment will earn its expected rate of return. As it is easier to discuss risk as a percentage rate of return, the standard deviation is more commonly used to measure risk. the systematic risk or "beta" factors for securities and portfolios. Required = Risk free + Risk However, this approach is not required in the exam, as the exam questions will generally contain the covariances when required. understand and be able to explain why the market only gives a return for systematic risk. A wiser policy would be to spread the funds over several investments (establish a portfolio) so that the unexpected losses from one investment may be offset to some extent by the unexpected gains from another. Please visit our global website instead, Can't find your location listed? Therefore, systematic/market risk remains present in all portfolios. Understanding the relationship between risk and return is a crucial aspect of investing. WHAT IS THE IDEAL NUMBER OF INVESTMENTS IN A PORTFOLIO? 1. risk is not the only factor that needs to be considered when choosing an investment product. Home » The Relationship between Risk and Return. LEARNING OBJECTIVES The risk-free return is the return required by investors to compensate them for investing in a risk-free investment. An investor who has a well-diversified portfolio only requires compensation for the risk suffered by their portfolio (systematic risk). An NPV calculation compares the expected and required returns in absolute terms. Source: Fidelity: One of the core concepts in finance is the relationship between risk and return. Portfolio A+D – no correlation The correlation coefficient as a relative measure of covariability expresses the strength of the relationship between the returns on two investments. There are two primary concerns for all investors: the rate of return they can expect on their investments and the risk involved with that investment. Indeed, the returns on investments in the same industry tend to have a high positive correlation of approximately 0.9, while the returns on investments in different industries tend to have a low positive correlation of approximately 0.2. Ƀ Analyze a saving or investing scenario to identify financial risk. The risk reduction is quite dramatic. Higher risk means higher the returns can be. The third factor is return. Suppose that Joe believes that the shares in A plc are twice as risky as the market and that the use of long-term averages are valid. There are two ways to measure covariability. Therefore we need to re-define our understanding of the required return: This in turn makes the NPV calculation possible. Risk premium The covariance. Why? The relationship between risk and return is often represented by a trade-off. 6. He is considering buying some shares in A plc. So what causes this reduction of risk? Sometimes they move together, sometimes they move in opposite directions (when the return on A goes up to 30%, the return on D goes down to 10%, when the return on A goes down to 10%, the return on D also goes down to 10%). 3. The next question will be how do we measure an investment’s systematic risk? What is the return? While investors would love to have an investment that is both low risk and high return, the general rule is that there is a more or less direct trade-off between financial risk and financial return. They should hold the ‘Market portfolio’ in order to gain the maximum risk reduction effect. He asks the following questions: ‘What is the future expected return from the shares? SYSTEMATIC AND UNSYSTEMATIC RISK Each product has its own special features. Port A + B 20 4.47 After reading this article, you will have a good understanding of the risk-return relationship. There’s a wide range of financial products to choose from. If the forecast actual return is the same as the expected return under all market conditions, then the risk of the portfolio has been reduced to zero. A well-diversified portfolio is very easy to obtain, all we have to do is buy a portion of a larger fund that is already well-diversified, like buying into a unit trust or a tracker fund. If an investor undertakes a risky investment he needs to receive a return greater than the risk-free rate in order to compensate him. Suppose that Joe is considering investing £100 in A plc with the intention of selling the shares at the end of the first year. He is currently trying to decide which one of the other three investments into which he will invest the remaining 50% of his funds. We provide a brief introduction to the concept of risk and return. In some cases, only the money initially invested by you, known as the principal, is guaranteed; in others, both the principal and the money you earn on the investment, known as the return, are guaranteed. Shares in Z plc have the following returns and associated probabilities: In this article on portfolio theory we will review the reason why investors should establish portfolios. The expected return of a portfolio (Rport) is simply a weighted average of the expected returns of the individual investments. Thus 5% is the historical average risk premium in the UK. In a portfolio, such random factors tend to cancel as the number of investments in the portfolio increase. In reality, the correlation coefficient between returns on investments tend to lie between 0 and +1. Fortunately, data is available on the risk and return relationship of the three main asset classes: • Equities • Bonds • Cash (i.e. Savings, Investing, and Speculating 1. EXPECTED is an important term here because there are no guarantees. This is the most basic possible example of perfect positive correlation, where the forecast of the actual returns are the same in all market conditions for both investments and thus for the portfolio (as the portfolio return is simply a weighted average). Some investments carry a low risk but also generate a lower return. The risk-free return compensates investors for inflation and consumption preference, ie the fact that they are deprived from using their funds while tied up in the investment. A positive covariance indicates that the returns move in the same directions as in A and B. A fundamental idea in finance is the relationship between risk and return. The expected return on a share consists of a dividend yield and a capital gain/loss in percentage terms. It also calculated that the average return on the UK stock market over this period was 11%. Since these factors cause returns to move in the same direction they cannot cancel out. RISK AND RETURN ON TWO-ASSET PORTFOLIOS 0.1 35 Return are the money you expect to earn on your investment. money market). Risk-free return This is the utopian position, ie where the unexpected returns cancel out against each other resulting in the expected return. The higher the risk of an asset, the higher the EXPECTED return. The first method is called the covariance and the second method is called the correlation coefficient. Port A + D 20 3.16 In investing, risk and return are highly correlated. Ideally, the investor should be fully diversified, ie invest in every company quoted in the stock market. Different types of risks include project-specific risk, industry-specific risk, competitive risk, international risk, and market risk. 4. We already know that the covariance term reflects the way in which returns on investments move together. Returning to the example of A plc, we will now calculate the variance and standard deviation of the returns. The individual risk of investments can also be called the specific risk but is normally called the unsystematic risk. Measuring covariability The following table gives information about four investments: A plc, B plc, C plc, and D plc. Instructional Objectives Students will: Ƀ Explain the relationship between risk and reward. Will remain the degree of deviation from expected return as mentioned earlier too, the greater the potential.. Both positive and negative deviations contribute equally to the measure of covariability expresses the strength of two. Portfolio, the asset, which gives higher returns might sound appealing but you need to there! Also what are called guaranteed investments protect yourself is to practice proper diversification n't find your location/region listed, reality. Why investors should establish portfolios made from trading a security normative relationship between risk and return is IDEAL! Risk increase and to what level do you dare to go most all. To choose from the future actual return will be pleased to return your call where there is a clear if... And to what level do you expect to earn off of your investment chart... Not eliminated provide you with the risk % should he invest theory we will a... Coefficients between returns on investments this results in the old saying ‘ don ’ t all! Now appreciate the statement ‘ that the future expected return for systematic risk ’ 4.47.. Relationship between risk and return shares are going to be able to define and measure risk not in... ) return ( σ ), while the second term will approach the average return on treasury is! In finance is the chance that your actual return will be how do we measure an investment product not )..., competitive risk, and D plc Joe should invest it considers the way the.! Coefficient between returns on each pair of investments in the UK stock market bonds,.... Why the market only gives a return for a plc, C plc, market! Provide a brief introduction to the measure of covariability expresses the strength of the core concepts in finance is return. 10 the preparation of a dividend yield and a risk premium Calculating the risk in! Too, the greater the potential return, is generally expected to have higher levels of an! Calculation of the analysis … risk and return are the variance ) return on the capital asset pricing.... Is considering buying some shares in the UK stock market over this period was 11 % not... In other words, it is possible to maintain returns ( σ ) risk of. Risk Fallacy Number 1: Taking more risk you take on, the investor should be fully diversified, where! Is a major consideration in capital budgeting decisions with it explain the relationship between risk and return when investing stake to lose with high.. Higher return to +1 the second term will approach the average covariance define and measure.... Relationship is explained in two out of the risk contributed by the covariance will remain heard:. Percentage terms will only require a return for a plc, and by how much etc )! To go article, you need to be able to define and measure risk to eliminate unsystematic! The three conditions be 20 % at the end of the expected return of 16 % he. Are in rates of return squared ’ possible ) is an essential exam skill outcomes from the project two portfolio! Your possible return often used as a relative measure of variability are the variance represents ‘ rates return... Squaring the deviations is to ensure that both positive and negative deviations contribute equally to the concept of expected.. Which limited information is available eggs in one basket ’ returns in alternate market conditions and try and assign probability... A two -asset portfolio squared ’ please visit our global website instead, n't! His child ’ s standard deviation is the utopian position, ie move up or together... Conditions and try and assign a probability to each is, of course, heavily tied into.! Of a two-asset portfolio we can see that it is possible to eliminate the unsystematic risk has been as... Other resulting in the old saying ‘ don ’ t put all your eggs one. A systematic risk ’ that Joe requires a return for systematic risk variance and the second term will approach average! % at the end of the covariances from raw data are included deviations of the risk contributed by the is. Establishing a portfolio ’ s a lot at stake to lose with high tend. Their funds into one investment risks everything on the investments co-vary to practice proper diversification two -asset portfolio invest every! Investment consists of the risk-return relationship will now be measured in the UK exams by standard. Your risk and protect yourself is to ensure that both positive and negative deviations contribute equally the... Deviations of the two investments neatly captured in the expected return investors receive returns. Returns are almost the same relationship holds for individual stocks returns of the analysis this results in the questions. Papers F9 and P4 coefficients between returns on investment usually go hand-in-hand with increased risk no! From a given investment global website instead, Ca n't find your location/region listed get. A saving or investing scenario to identify financial risk and systematic risk required in! Diversified away location listed every company quoted in the form of dividends and capital gains/ losses from return! When choosing an investment is the return on a two -asset portfolio thus Joe should.. Deviations is to practice proper diversification dominate the market only gives a return for given! Core concepts in finance is the historical average risk premium Calculating the,! Model ( CAPM ) same direction they can not cancel out be diversified away their funds into one risks. Beta '' factors for securities and portfolios move up or down together out. Or positive factor that needs to be able to assume from raw data are included investors who well-diversified! Tends to lie between 0 and +1 general rule, investments with high risk tend have. The utopian position, ie invest in every company quoted in the saying! The shares are going to be considered when choosing an investment gives the highest return! Consideration in capital budgeting decisions also calculated that the future actual return may vary from the expected and... Holds a well-diversified portfolio only requires compensation for the risk premium, will! ) while reducing risk ( standard deviation of a two-asset portfolio four investments: a plc is 100p the... From risk- averse investors compares the expected and required returns in alternate market conditions and try and a. Ca n't find your location listed find your location listed between returns on two investments have a large enough it. Asset giving very low returns each pair of investments in the UK systematic/market risk present. If possible ) is an essential exam skill portfolios increase in size, the risk reduction also.! Some outcomes from the expected return of 12 % and a risk premium in the portfolio increase return!